The 2008 Battle of Sadr City, which took place in Baghdad nearly 15 months after the beginning of the U.S. "surge" in Iraq, has received relatively little scholarly attention. The Jaish al Mahdi (JAM) overran GoI outposts in the district and barraged the International Zone with short-range rockets. The next day thousands of Iraqis rallied outside the offices of Al-Hawza in support of the newspaper. The Military Leader is hosted by an Army Infantry officer with 20 years experience and four deployments to Iraq/Afghanistan. He said he was talking to friends on a busy street, when the blast occurred. First scenario attempt: Sadr City 2008 While both relatively new to the game and the scenario editor; I am announcing the start of a current scenario project based on the the April-May assualt on the Sadr City neighborhood in Baghdad by Iraqi and US military units. Please note: I reserve the right to delete comments that are offensive or off-topic. The fighting has not abated in Sadr City and other Mahdi Army-dominated neighborhoods in northern and eastern Baghdad. Gonzales relates numerous accounts in which people found themselves in survival situations and continued to cling to their old reality…the one where they were still sitting safely in a plane at 30,000 feet…or the one where a bear hadn’t just wrecked their campsite leaving them stranded. U.S. forces launched an ambitious program of reconstruction intended to convince Sadr City's population to transfer its loyalties to the Government of Iraq. He. Technical capabilities must enable decentralized decisionmaking and small-unit initiative. Sadr City. The active portion of the insurgency was weakened in key ways. Much of the overall insurgency had been neutralized. Multi-National Force - Iraq Commander Gen. Raymond T. Odierno listens to questions from 60 Minutes reporter Leslie Stahl during his visit to the People's Market in the Sadr City District of Baghdad, on Sept. 18, 2008. The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make communities throughout the world safer and more secure, healthier and more prosperous. Access control would ultimately enable U.S. forces to set the tempo of operations and methodically capture or kill insurgent leaders through targeted raids. In the fourth episode of MWI’s Urban Warfare Project podcast, John Spencer is joined by retired Lt. Col. The people that died are the ones who failed to update their mental maps to their new situation. The essential point is that sometimes there is a fate lying just around the corner that we have never, EVER considered, but will have to react to. From the Soldiers on the street to the Commanding General, the dramatic change in the tactical landscape demanded mental agility, measured emotional response, and poised leadership. It’s our comfort zone; it’s what we rest on; it’s where we feel safe. Johnson, David E., M. Wade Markel, and Brian Shannon, Homeland Security Operational Analysis Center, Family Caregivers Should Be Integrated into the Health Care Team, Allies Growing Closer: Japan-Europe Security Ties in the Age of Strategic Competition, A Message from Our President, Medical Mistrust, Insulin Prices: RAND Weekly Recap, Benefits and Applications of a Standardized Definition of High-Quality Care, A Bell That Can't Be Unrung: The CARES Act and Unemployment Insurance, Patients Log On to See Their Own Doctors During the Pandemic, Getting to Know Military Caregivers and Their Needs, Helping Coastal Communities Plan for Climate Change, Improving Psychological Wellbeing and Work Outcomes in the UK. We needed a new plan, and fast. Some might say that we had reached “steady-state operations,” and a routine of stability. Leaders also need to accept that unseen “realities” exist and have momentum along tracks that will ultimately intersect with and affect the organization. at the 2008 Battle of Sadr City between the militia of radical Shi’ite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr and the military forces of Iraq and the US conducting the operation in concert. In late March 2008, a Shi'a uprising in Baghdad's Sadr City district challenged the authority of the Government of Iraq (GoI) at its heart. Six years this month, such a “new fate” arrived in Sadr City, Iraq. U.S. forces seized key enemy rocket-launch sites early in the battle. Even as American and Iraqi troops are fighting to establish control of the Sadr City section of this capital, the Iraqi government's program to restore basic services like electricity, sewage and trash collection is lagging, jeopardizing the effort to win over the area's wary residents. This post is not a narrative of the combat in Sadr City that year, but it does serve as a perfect example of a situation that requires leaders to reframe their mental maps to the new reality. In late March 2008, a Shi'a uprising in Baghdad's Sadr City district challenged the authority of the Government of Iraq (GoI) at its heart. Six years ago, such a “new fate” arrived in Sadr City, Iraq. Johnson, David E., M. Wade Markel, and Brian Shannon, The 2008 Battle of Sadr City: Reimagining Urban Combat. The digital map erupted red icons all over the city as our units tried to get a handle on the emerging situation. On March 28, the US overseer of Iraq, Paul Bremer, ordered the 60-day closure of Al-Hawza, a newspaper published by Muqtada al-Sadr’s group, on the charges of inciting violence against the occupation. Where two companies once occupied, 14 companies now stood. The Pardee RAND Graduate School (PRGS.edu) is the largest public policy Ph.D. program in the nation and the only program based at an independent public policy research organization—the RAND Corporation. The research described in this report was sponsored by the United States Army and conducted by the RAND Arroyo Center. However, insurgents still enjoyed considerable freedom of movement making allied forces vulnerable to attack from unsecured portions of Sadr City. Instead, through innovative tactics combining high-technology airborne surveillance and strike, elements of siege warfare and vigorous exploitation through civil military operations, coalition forces managed to subdue the uprising with minimum loss to U.S. forces and the civilian population. Sadr City Operations, April - May, 2008 Sep 2, 2008 - Institute for t... To see this map in context, please view Iraq Report #11. The eruption of violence threatened to draw U.S. forces into a battle in a closely packed urban area inhabited by an estimated 2.4 million people, many of whom strongly supported the GoI's main antagonist, Moqtada al-Sadr. On April 3, Bremer sent troops to al-Sadr’s home and arrested Mustafa Yaqoubi, a top lieutenant,sparking further protests. The Iraqi security forces have entered the northern regions of Sadr City on Tuesday. 2008, Sadr City appeared to operate like a separate nation, where Sadr’s word was synonymous with the law. Six years this month, such a “new fate” arrived in Sadr City, Iraq. I was one of the officers assigned to those two companies at the time. Sadr City. This new paradigm can help the Army focus on what capabilities it will need in the future for such operations. Snipers remain an important enabler in urban operations. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. The brigade was deployed to Baghdad, Iraq, where it took part in the battle of Sadr City. U.S. forces had trained appropriately prior to deployment. The views expressed on this site do not officially represent the views of the US military or the United States Government. Drawing upon decades of experience, RAND provides research services, systematic analysis, and innovative thinking to a global clientele that includes government agencies, foundations, and private-sector firms. Forcing noncombatants to evacuate was not an option there was nowhere for them to go. The 2008 battle for Sadr City offers a different model, in which the challenges were even more formidable than those posed by Grozny and Fallujah. A total of 465 Mahdi Army fighters have been confirmed killed in and around Sadr City since March 25. US forces, from the 759th Military Police Battalion, subsequently regained control of the police stations after running firefights with Mahdi rebels that kille… This report is part of the RAND Corporation research report series. Sadr City was built in Iraq in 1959 by Prime Minister Abdul Karim Qassim in response to grave housing shortages in Baghdad. Skip to comments. He criticised the Iraqi government over the siege of Sadr City in March 2008, saying the district's residents had suffered enough. Heavy armored forces have enduring utility in counterinsurgency and urban operations. GOTTA SEE THIS-War Endur.Freedom 8/7/04-Basra,Najaf,Sadr City Yahoo, AP, Reuters, and the usual suspects, and many brave photographers | 8/87/04 | President Bush and the valiant US Military with the Armies of Good against the Axis of Evil . Muqtada al-Sadr had likely been planning the April 2008 offensive for months. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School, by David E. Johnson, M. Wade Markel, Brian Shannon. Conditions on the Eve of the Battle of Sadr City, Analysis of Contemporary Arabic Language Sources on the Battle of Sadr City. “Sadr City right now is like a city of ghosts,” Abu Haider al-Bahadili, a Mahdi Army leader told the Washington Post by phone. Six years this month, such a “new fate” arrived in Sadr City, Iraq. The authors present the first full operational analysis of the battle and distill insights and lessons that can inform a broader understanding of urban operations, particularly those conducted as part of irregular warfare. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.”, Getting Your Mental Map Realigned (Sadr City 2008), Unit Leader Development Products & Resources, Realigning Your Mental Map: Sadr City, 2008, Telling the World How Smart We Are (Habit Series #6), The Principles of Military Leadership [Day 3]. We had regular meetings with local leaders and enemy attacks were very low. Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. I only recommend products or services I use personally and believe will add value to my readers. We had regular meetings with local leaders and enemy attacks were very low. the real world. Naziha al-Dulaimiwas instrumental in turning the vast slums of eastern Baghdad into a massive public works and housing project that came to be known as Revolution … Protecting the population requires a balance between offensive, defensive, and stability operations. From March 23 to May 12, 2008, US Army and Iraqi security forces engaged in an intense urban battle in and around Baghdad’s Shiite neighborhood of Sadr City. Dubbed Operation Salam, or Peace, thousands of Iraqi troops moved into the Mahdi Army stronghold just before dawn and took up positions at strategic points throughout Sadr City. Disclosure of Material Connection: Some of the links contained on this site are “affiliate links.” This means if you click on the link and purchase the item, I will receive an affiliate commission. Rob MacMillan. Holding onto the prior trend of stability was pointless and risky. He blasted the American occupiers and the security deal being negotiated between the U.S. and al-Maliki's government. Posted on 08/08/2004 7:53:56 AM PDT by Diogenesis. In a matter of hours, the tactical situation in Sadr City shifted from low to high-intensity, with engagements akin to the Black Hawk Down depiction of Mogadishu in 1993. The urban terrain allowed good use of U.S. technical advantages. Ground maneuver remains indispensable for shaping the battle and achieving decision. By March 2008, the urban enclave of 2 million people in northeastern Baghdad had quieted down to the point that just two companies of Stryker Infantry were needed to contain it. A U.S. soldier makes a retina scan of an Iraqi man in the Shiite enclave of Sadr city, Baghdad, Iraq, on Monday, June 9, 2008. RAND reports present research findings and objective analysis that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors. Assistant Policy Researcher; Ph.D. “Operation Salam is going in accordance with well-planned and organized steps,” Major General Qassem Atta told Voices of Iraq. Persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; technical intelligence; and precision-strike capabilities enable the attacker to seize the initiative. Intelligence efforts, of course, seek to discover these initiatives, but leaders must live in a state of open-ended readiness to adjust and lead their organizations through change. In 2008, Lt. Col. MacMillan was serving as the battalion operations officer of 1-68 Armor in 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division. Stahl, Leslie, "The Battle of Sadr City," 60 Minutes, October 12, 2008. The Jaish al Mahdi (JAM) overran GoI outposts in the district and barraged the International Zone with short-range rockets. The authors of this study highlight an alternative approach to block-by-block clearing missions: a wide area security approach, showcased in the strategies developed in the streets of Sadr City. Dozens of people were killed by a car bomb in a crowded food market in the Sadr City section of Baghdad on Wednesday. He has been a student of leadership for two decades and designed The Military Leader to help other leaders develop themselves and grow their organizations. Amazon Kindle is the most popular reader for mobi files. By March 2008, the urban enclave of 2 million people in northeastern Baghdad had quieted down to the point that just two companies of Stryker Infantry were needed to contain it. About 270 Iraqi men from 18 … Use Adobe Acrobat Reader version 10 or higher for the best experience. At that time, Sadr City was secured with the use of Strykers from the 1st Squadron, 2d … John Spencer | 03.06.20. The lesson is that leaders must be open-minded enough to sense a changing environment, willing to discard what is comfortable and accept the new reality, and then be decisive in the new environment, not the old. M16 rifle (19,434 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to article 101st Airborne troopers on patrol with M4s in Sadr City, Iraq, c. 2006. The Battle of Sadr City, March–May 2008. Success in this battle solidified Iraqi government control over all of Baghdad and throughout Iraq, creating conditions that enabled the United States to realize contemporary operational objectives in Iraq. What was the full story of the Battle of Sadr City? We were given the job of driving up and down the roads in our very heavy armored vehicles. All RAND reports undergo rigorous peer review to ensure high standards for research quality and objectivity. What are its implications for the U.S. Army in terms of the conduct of future urban operations? Calibre is an example of a free and open source e-book library management application. We had regular meetings with local leaders and enemy attacks were very low. “It has turned from a city into a field of battle.” The Iraqi Army enjoyed increasing success in conducting operations on its own. Insurgents, their freedom of movement rapidly disappearing, were drawn into battle on disadvantageous terms. He converted to Islam in 2008, soon after graduating from Oakton High School in Fairfax County. Location: Sadr City, Iraq During 2006 to 2008, 15 months, I was part of an engineering unit tasked with conducting route clearance around the greater Baghdad area. ... a 26-year-old resident of the Shiite slum of Sadr City where 21 people were killed in the most deadly incident of the day. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School, Assistant Policy Researcher, RAND; Ph.D. Feel free to email the site/content author at admin@themilitaryleader.com. Your email address will not be published. DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Chapter V Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Specially Designated Nationals, Specially Designated Terrorists, Specially Designated Global Terrorists, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, and Specially Designated Narcotics Traffickers AGENCY:. It was also one of vast importance to future policy and leadership. However, the coalition's defeat of Jaish al-Mahdi after six weeks of high-intensity fighting offers important lessons for the U.S. Army as it prepares for future operations. Further information: Iraq spring fighting of 2008 and Siege of Sadr City In March 2008, during the Battle of Basra , clashes erupted in Sadr City between the U.S. and the Mahdi Army . By March 2008, the urban enclave of 2 million people in northeastern Baghdad had quieted down to the point that just two companies of Stryker Infantry were needed to contain it. Urban counterinsurgency requires forces to transition rapidly between offensive, defensive, and stability operations. Allied forces continued and improved suppression of enemy rocket fires. We mostly drove around in RG31’s, Buffalos, and Husky vehicle mounted mine detectors. On April 4, al-Sadr issued a statement calling on his supporters to stop staging demonstration… The leader of the uprising offered a cease-fire, though many individuals kept fighting. By March 2008, the urban enclave of 2 million people in northeastern Baghdad had quieted down to the point that just two companies of Stryker Infantry were needed to contain it. The Jaish al Mahdi (JAM) overran GoI outposts in the district and barraged the International Zone with short-range rockets. Enduring success depends on capable indigenous security forces. On desktop computers and some mobile devices, you may need to download an eBook reader to view ePub files. Subscribe to the weekly Policy Currents newsletter to receive updates on the issues that matter most. U.S. casualties and collateral damage could have been substantial. Eight US troops were killed and 51 more wounded in the bloody battle. On desktop computers and some mobile devices, you may need to download an eBook reader to view mobi files. Sadr City. Isolating the enemy enables the counterinsurgent to seize the initiative. The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. But as the saying goes, the enemy gets a vote…and Muqtada al-Sadr’s vote came at the end of March, when he unleashed an hourly barrage of rocket, mortar, IED, RPG, and gunfire attacks on the Green Zone and units in the area. This mental map is our unique perspective of the world. The last remaining insurgency fighters came under increasingly destructive attack. Sadr City is part of Baghdad and has an estimated population of 2.4 million. The command deployed additional assets from surrounding areas and blocked the routes in/out of the city, then platoons fought their way north to reclaim a key road. But there’s a problem in that our mental map doesn’t always align with “the real map”… i.e. Integrating special operations forces into conventional operations achieves synergy. In late March 2008, a Shi0́9a uprising in Baghdad0́9s Sadr City district challenged the authority of the Government of Iraq (GoI) at its heart. The resulting month-long fight ultimately reduced the Sadr militia’s combat power and a new 2.4 km wall across the city prevented them from affecting key coalition bases. GOTTA SEE THIS - War for Enduring Freedom 8/7/04 - Basra, Najaf, Sadr City Also available in print form. The 2008 Battle of Sadr City wasn't simply one of the most kinetic and violent battles of Operation Iraqi Freedom. RAND is nonprofit, nonpartisan, and committed to the public interest. The battle forced units that had been mainly focused on counterinsurgency operations to convert overnight into combined-arms teams of armor and mechanized infantry and engage a large […] This revenue is used to offset costs associated with maintaining The Military Leader site. By Michael R. Gordon New York Times April 22, 2008. Sadr and his political movement have become increasingly isolated since the fighting began in Basrah, Baghdad, and the South. Hundreds of Shi'ites loyal to al-Sadr gathered outdoors [on July 25, 2008] for Friday noon prayer and a heated sermon by an imam in al-Sadr's movement. Members of the newly arrived 1st Cavalry Division and elements of the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment were sent out to retake them. In Deep Survival, author Laurence Gonzales describes how the brain assembles a “mental map” of the world based on spatial orientation, experience, emotion, cognition, and every other facet of who we are. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2013. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR160.html. As the fighting started on April 4, 2004, militiamen ambushed a 1st Cavalry Division patrol and Iraqi policewere expelled from three police stations in Sadr City. At the time named Revolution City (Arabic: مدينة الثورة‎, romanized: Al-Thawra), it provided housing for Baghdad's urban poor, many of whom had come from the countryside and who had until then lived in appalling conditions. The enemy had achieved surprise and units were sustaining casualties. The concept of operation involved isolating an area of operations with concrete T-walls, providing access control. We were in a comfort zone. And the South over the City as our units tried to get handle... 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